Intelligence and Anatomy

New research in the measurements of intelligence of bird species reveals that incubating chicks can communicate discomfort – too hot or too cold by vocalizations. The brooding parent will then move the eggs accordingly to make the chicks comfortable. Eggs have microscopic pores through which air is exchanged and an air space at the round end of each egg. Birds have more complex vocal anatomy than mammals, but they do have a number of internal air chambers where air is taken in and released by muscular activity. The interpretation of all emmitted sounds is still not exactly known by researchers. They have categorized mating attraction, territorial warning and other forms of communication sounds made by specific species and groups of birds.
Most birds have a crop visible in the mid to lower neck, which is described as a ‘doggy bag’ where food is taken in and stored for later digestion. A gizzard, further down the digestive tract is found in many birds that eat solids. It is comprized of very strong grinding muscles – since birds have neither incisors nor molars – no teeth at all – for digesting bones, feathers, tough skin, grains, seeds and nuts. Adult birds swallow small pebbles or stones to assist in the grinding action of the gizzard. Most birds of Prey regurgitate pellets of the inedible and non-nutritive parts of their meals. Some birds also regurgitate a neonatal feeding liquid to very young chicks. After absorbing nutrition along their digestive tracts, the end ‘squirt’ is usually pale or plant colored liquid waste.


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